top of page
White work table with notes, smartphone and laptop_edited.jpg

Lilandra Dennis

My Work

Hello, I'm Lilandra, a tech enthusiast from the Caribbean, and I'm excited to share my passion for turning innovative ideas into reality. Currently focused on Renewable Energy Tech, my work spans coding, design, and embracing the ever-evolving tech landscape. I invite you to explore my projects and envision the value I can bring to your team. Let's connect and discuss how my skills can contribute to your exciting endeavors!

Portfolio: Welcome


I started the program in September 2021. Being a part-time student, I study three (3) courses a Semester, in the evening from Monday to Friday after work and Saturday mornings. Working while studying has taught me time management and the importance of budgeting (as I am paying my way), along with a variety of new skills that accompany my course load.

Bio 1.PNG

Bioenergy I

This course’s assessment included a research assignment based on questions set in conjunction with the lecture topic for that week (excerpt in image) and a literature review based on a topic selected from a list provided by the lecturer. The topic chosen by my partner and I was “Agro-Pv Systems and The Role Of Bioenergy In A Circular Biomass Approach”.

Project Abstract:

Agrophotovoltaics (Agro-PV), also known as Agrivoltaics (Agri-PV), APV or solar sharing, is a method for the simultaneous use of agricultural land for food production and photovoltaic electricity production. This technology enables an efficient dual use of agricultural land: photovoltaics on open land can be substantially expanded without using valuable resources on fertile arable land. They can be built by placing PV panels on top of greenhouses or in open field systems by spacing them between or above crops. Studies have shown that crops, like tomatoes, peppers, berries and grape vines, are the most suitable for APV as they require shade to grow.  

APV can be utilized for cultivated plants through specialized support systems for the PV modules that are adapted to cultivation, while it can be utilized for grassland with conventional mounting structures for ground mount photovoltaic systems with minor adaptations. There have been commercial and research APV facilities developed more recently but more research is needed to maximise and fully understand the potential of APV. Most advances in APV currently occur in Europe and Asia with some use in Latin America. Although, there is greater need for such in Latin America and the Caribbean due to limited land in developed areas and funding for land use. Trinidad and Tobago has the potential and usable space available to develop and promote APV technology locally at the API and the Orange Grove and Brechin Castle solar plant sites. Future research involves the use of solar trackers to maximise PV yield, the application of wavelength-selective PV modules in horticulture and the potential synergistic effects of APV panels especially in arid regions.

Of all forms of energy utilized by humankind, Bioenergy has been one of the first ever utilized from its use as fuel for fire in the caveman era to the modern era where we are processing all available biomass through a variety of technological methods to extract high quality synthesized sources of energy, entirely from organic matter.

Within the use of Bioenergy, also comes the opportunity to utilize all possible organic matter that may have once been considered useless waste products. This leads to the design of the Circular Biomass approach, where there will be a continuous cycle of reuse and recycling of feedstocks throughout the agribusiness and energy sector to achieve a sustainable and efficient system for energy and food production.

Solar 1.PNG

Solar Energy Conversion

The assessment of this course consisted of three (3) exams, two (2) labs, and one (1) research project.

Lab 1:

The title of Lab 1 was “Comparison of The Efficiencies of The Flat Plate and Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors”. The objectives of the lab were to calculate the efficiencies of the flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors using two different methods (Method I and Method II) and to compare the efficiencies of flat plate collector and evacuated tube solar collector. The efficiencies of the flat plate solar collector and evacuated tube solar collector were evaluated under similar conditions and time periods. To calculate the efficiency of the two different solar water heaters, the temperatures of the inlet and outlet were measured and recorded simultaneously at 10-minute intervals for both solar collectors for the time period of 9:00 am to 1:00 pm. The solar irradiance was also monitored and recorded under the same conditions.

The efficiencies were calculated over a time period using both Method I and Method II. Method I does not account for heat losses while Method II does account for heat losses in the equation. For Method I, it was found that the flat plate collector had a significantly higher efficiency when compared to the evacuated tube collector. Yet, for Method II, the efficiency of the evacuated tube collector was analogous and at times higher than the flat plate collector. It was seen that there was a vast difference in efficiency calculated across Method I and Method II for the evacuated tube collector which could be attributed to heat losses whilst the efficiency values for the flat plate collector were mostly similar across both methods.

Lab 2 (excerpt in image):

The title of Lab 2 was “RETScreen Modelling”. RETScreen was used to perform an energy model for Solar Thermal Power Plant in Alturas, California, USA to determine technical and financial feasibility of the proposed case and to examine if the project could have been classified under the Clean Development Mechanisms. This Solar Thermal Power Plant project was found to feasible but not CDM eligible since it resulted in reduction in GHG emissions to 0.552 tCO2/MWh annually, an overall profit of $36,792,000 over the project lifetime with IRR on equity of 23.7% and payback period on equity of 4.7 years but its host country USA is not classified as “developing status”.

Research Project:

The research project was based on discussion questions provided by the lecturer. These questions prompted exploration into the energy targets of Caribbean countries, Trinidad and Tobago’s implementation and plans for Renewable Energy implementation, its contribution to CARICOM’s Renewable Energy target, benefits of Renewable Energy in the country’s energy mix and recommendations for the country to reach its target.

In conclusion, T&T has made a commitment of 10% RE power generation by 2021 and the reduction in overall emissions from the power generation, transportation and industrial sectors by 15% by 2030. Projects such as the green hydrogen project with production capacity of 27,200 tonnes per year that is expected to start up in 2024 and the development of two utility scale solar PV power plants in Brechin Castle and Orange Grove which are expected to become operational by 2022 to produce 112 MW collectively. These projects will allow T&T to meet their 10% NDCs in 2021.

In addition, the incentives currently in place for RE expenditure in the industrial and transportation sector need to be re-examined to determine overall effectiveness in terms of CO2 equivalent reduction. Notwithstanding, stricter CO2 targets should be enforced throughout T&T sectors to encourage the energy transition. Although, companies have made public pledges to reduce GHG emissions locally, they have not made tangible steps to enact those pledges. As such, T&T’s focus should be aimed at decarbonizing these sectors and cascading learnings across industries.

wind 1.PNG

Wind Energy I

This course’s assessment consisted of two (2) reports based on Simulations conducted individually after an Introductory Lab Session.

Report 1:

This report utilised the WindFarmer Demonstration Software Version to complete Exercises 1 & 2 from their “Software Exercises” Manual. Exercise 1 familiarised the user with the basic functions of WindFarmer and the navigation of its user interface. Exercise 2 illustrated how to complete an energy calculation and optimise the wind farm layout for energy production using the software. The calculated net energy yield of the original and modified wind farm layout results were compared. It was found that the array efficiency decreased by 0.4% and the estimated annual net energy production increased by 14.49 GWh/yr.

Report 2 (excerpt in image):

This report utilised the WindFarmer Demonstration Software version to complete Exercises 1 - 9 from their “Software Exercises” Manual and showed the theory involved in the completion of the exercises. The user was familiarised with the basic functionality of the WindFarmer software. The user was able to complete energy calculations and generate reports using the software. The user was equipped with knowledge of wind farm layout optimisation for energy production and the ability to compare the results of the WindFarmer Optimisation algorithm.

In the first energy yield report, the array efficiency was 96.7% and the estimated annual net energy production was 18.61 GWh/yr. With optimisation, in the second energy yield report, the array efficiency was 96.3% and the estimated annual net energy production was 33.1 GWh/yr. Energy report 3 showed that the array efficiency was 96.7% and the estimated annual net energy production was 33.9 GWh/yr. Energy report 4 showed that the array efficiency was 97.34% and the estimated annual net energy production was 32.3 GWh/yr. Electrical efficiency was 98% for energy reports 1 – 4. Energy report 5 showed that the array efficiency was 99.06%, the estimated annual net energy production was 10.39 GWh/yr and electrical efficiency was 97.69% due to electrical losses and load.

The noise was heaviest within the radius of each turbine, with each cluster propagating off of each other. Further away from the turbines, the noise dropped in levels leading to a noise level below 40db(A) outside of the belt. The dwellings in this simulation were affected by shadow flicker 1 – 20 hours per year with the most shadow flicker occurring within the immediate boundary of the wind farm such that theoretical planning permission would have been granted to this wind farm since the surrounding buildings were not adversely affected for a prolonged period of time. Viewpoint 1 showed the tips and hubs of 10 turbines with the horizontal subtended angle of 32 degrees, site visibility of 79% and the vertical subtended angle of 5.75 degrees. 

Thus, the theoretical wind farm in Scotland would have been near ideal in terms of theoretical planning permission.

elec 1.PNG

Electrical Integration of Renewables

The assessment for this course entailed two (2) assignments and two (2) exams. They were based on scenarios for electrical wiring and calculation of renewable systems.

audit 1.PNG

Energy Use and Energy Auditing

This course’s assessment involved two (2) reports – a Home Audit and a Commercial Audit. The Home Audit was conducted based on information I would’ve gathered on my home. The basic information for the Commercial Audit was provided by the lecturer where further research was required on the power consumption of the equipment used within the organisation.

Report 1:

Electrical (T&TEC) bills for an approximately 139 square meter single story home were obtained for a 12-month period. The lighting and appliances for the household were noted. The Home Energy Audit sheet was populated to complete a bill, lighting, and appliance analysis, as well as a summary sheet. An energy consumption distribution pie chart was developed based on this information.

From the electrical bills, it was seen that the average electrical energy used was 626 kWh, with the average cost being $195.00. From the summary data, the total average monthly energy was 638 kWh and total monthly cost was $160.00. When comparing the bills analysis with the summary values it was seen that there was a Variance of 12 kWh or 1.95%.

The energy consumption distribution pie chart showed the following:

  • Air Conditioning was 0% as the household is not air conditioned

  • Lighting was 2% as the household utilises LED bulbs

  • Food Preservation was 37% as there one fridge in use

  • Food Preparation was 1%* due to the miniscule use of a blender, microwave oven and hand mixer. Other forms of preparation was completed using gas as opposed to electricity.

  • Laundry was 17% as the household utilises an iron, washing machine and tankless water heater regularly

  • Comfort Conditioning was 25% due to the regular use of fans and an air purifier

  • Hair and Beauty was 0% as the household utilises a heating pad and shaver sparsely

  • Household was 5% due to the frequent use of laptops and rare use of a vacuum cleaner

  • Home Entertainment was 14% was the household commonly uses multiple LED televisions

Report 2 (excerpt in image):

An Audit was conducted on an Insurance Company to determine various Energy Saving Opportunities that can be implemented. The energy consumption savings, cost savings and simple payback for the implementation of each opportunity were also established.

Records from 1st June 2020 to 1st February 2022 were compiled and analysed. The electricity consumption recorded from the bills and the estimated average electricity consumption (from the lighting, general equipment, and air conditioning usage) were compared and balanced. Air Conditioning was the major energy consumer at 75%, General Equipment was secondary at 13%, followed by Lighting at 11% and Refrigeration at 1%.

The Total Average Monthly Energy Consumption was 45,493 kWh at a Total Average Monthly Cost of $15,755.00 TTD. The Electrical Energy Usage Index (EUI) was 422.81 kWh/m2yr. Based on the building’s annual consumption of 546,276 kWh, the resultant annual carbon dioxide would be 386.22 tons/year. This is equivalent to 26,591 gallons of gasoline consumed.

The recommended Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs) were:

  • Installing blinds and/or dark tint at windows

  • Placing computers and laptops in sleep mode and switching off monitors when persons are on breaks, lunch, walking around the office or they are generally not in use

  • Switching off lights, computers, laptops, monitors, and other general appliances/equipment that do not have too long of a start-up process

  • Automating general appliances/equipment that do not have too long of a start-up process using Wi-Fi controlled plugs (SMART Plugs)

  • Placing printers, scanners, shedders, and fax machines in energy saver mode after 5 minutes of inactivity

  • Unplugging general equipment which are seldomly used

  • Switching to digital signatures, correspondence with clients, receipts, and file keeping. Only printing the final policy document for the client’s proof of policy. Thus, reducing the amount of printing conducted by staff.

  • Educating staff on Energy Conservation and Efficiency through workshops, training, memos, and signage

  • Switching to LED lighting

  • Installing VFDs (Variable Frequency Drives) on the Air Handler Units

  • Installing double pane windows

  • Insulating the walls and ceilings of the building

  • Automating the lights on the 1st and 2nd Floors so that they switch on at 6am and off at 6 pm. Outside of those hours, they can operate on a motion sensor, in case of an intruder or for the security officers to patrol easily.

A Renewable Energy Option which the company can consider is installing solar panels to supplement 25% of its energy consumption.

An Energy Management Plan helps to identify various economical options and solutions for energy production and consumption. As the company is currently without an Energy Management Plan, provisions have been enclosed in the report for the implementation of one.

wind 2.PNG

Wind Energy II

This course’s assessment consisted of two (2) reports based on Simulations conducted individually during or after Lab Sessions.

Report 1 (excerpt in image):

An energy prognosis for the wind energy turbine (ENERCON E-30) on the campus of the University of Applied Sciences Flensburg was created. WindPRO 3.4 was utilised to input and output data for calculation and wind park planning. The wind conditions were determined using WAsP and WindPRO. Ground roughness within a radius of up to 20 km, contour lines, obstacles and wind statistics were determined. The energy prognosis was utilised to state the expected annual energy output of the wind energy turbine on the campus of the University Flensburg.

The Enercon 30 wind turbine generator was inserted into the simulation. The roughness, wind statistics, contour lines, obstacles, and objects were defined and manipulated. The energy prognosis for the simulation was determined.

It was observed that the “Annual Energy Result” without the Campus Hall was 1.7 MWh/y more than that with the Campus Hall. Consequently, the “Annual Energy Result - 10%” without the Campus Hall was 1 MWh/y more than that with the Campus Hall. It was also noted that the free mean wind speed without the Campus Hall was 0.01 m/s than more than that with the Campus Hall and “Capacity factor” without the Campus Hall was 01% more than that with the Campus Hall. The “Total Resulting Energy” without the Campus Hall was 1.7 MWh more than that with the Campus Hall. The “Resulting Energy” without the Campus Hall was 1.2 MWh and 0.4 MWh greater than that with the Campus Hall in Sector 10 (WNW) and Sector 11 (NNW) respectively.

In “Wind profile overview” the diagrams reflected that there were lesser wind speeds at the various altitudes for the graphs with the Campus Hall. It can be seen that at a height of 30 m in Sector 10 without the Campus Hall there is a wind speed of 5.6 m/s whereas with the Campus Hall there is a wind speed of 5.3 m/s. It can be seen that at a height of 30 m in Sector 11 without the Campus Hall there is a wind speed of 5 m/s whereas with the Campus Hall there is a wind speed of 4.7 m/s. Thus, it can be deduced that the Campus Hall reduced the wind speed of the area as it proved to be a hinderance of air flow. The simulation was exported into Google Earth to view a 3D map of the University of Flensburg and its WTG.

Report 2:

Wind data was fed from the wind met tower into windPRO. Data was converted from the file into a “Meteo-Object”. Data (Weibull distributions of the wind rose) was interpreted. Data was utilised to calculate the energy yield of a WTG. It was found that the Annual Energy Result was 488.9 MWh/y, Annual Energy Free mean wind speed was 6.11 m/s and Capacity factor was 27.9%.

The wind statistic was generated from long term wind data at the site where the wind turbine is located.

A wind park (or farm) was created with the given turbine coordinates. The energy production of the wind park was calculated. It was calculated that the Result PARK was 3,137.9 MWh/y, Result – 10.0% was 2,824.1 MWh/y, GROSS Free WTGs was 3,425.4 MWh/y, Wake loss was 8.4%, and Capacity factor was 23.0%. The wind park area was defined, and the wind park was optimized. It was calculated that the Result PARK was 3,290.0 MWh/y, Result – 10.0% was 2,961.0 MWh/y, GROSS Free WTGs was 3,430.2 MWh/y, Wake loss was 4.1%, and Capacity factor was 24.1%. Thus, between the two layouts, the Result PARK was 152.1 MWh/y, Result – 10.0% was 136.9 MWh/y, GROSS Free WTGs was 4.8 MWh/y, and Capacity factor was 1.1% greater in Layout 2 than Layout 1. Wake loss was 4.3% less in Layout 2 than Layout 1.

Three noise sensitive areas were created. The noise level of the turbine and its resulting noise level as heard by its surroundings via those noise sensitive areas were determined. The noise demand was 45.0 dB(A). The sound level from WTGs at noise sensitive point A was 42.6 dB(A), noise sensitive point B was 37.8 dB(A), and noise sensitive point C was 55.2 dB(A). Noise sensitive points A and B fulfilled their noise demand. However, noise sensitive point C did not as it was over the limit by 10.2 dB(A). It can be deduced that since noise sensitive point C was the closest to the turbine it had the highest dB(A) value.

The shadow created by the turbine was calculated. At the shadow receptor, for the worse case, shadow hours per year was 9:28, shadow days per year was 46 and maximum shadow hours per day was 0:17. Thus, proving that the receptor was positioned such that it was below the threshold value of 30. A flicker map for the turbine was generated.

A PV field was created. The time varying production of the field was calculated. All production was 1,425,448 kWh/y and all/average hourly power was 162.6 kW AC. 

The ideal location on Trinidad out of 5 options to create a wind farm was determined to be Icacos. A wind farm with 2 GE General Electric GE 1.85 – 87 WTGs at that location was created. AEP with Park, Noise, Shadow, PV field AEP calculations were performed.


Energy Economics

The assessment for this course consisted of one (1) coursework essay, three (3) coursework exams, and three (3) asynchronous activities.
The essay discussed the influences on energy economics during the 1970s to the 2000s, the global developments that affected 2010s, and the affect of the coronavirus pandemic on the energy transition.


Project and Programme Management

The assessment for this course consisted of one (1) group project and presentation, and one (1) final examination.  
The group presentation focused on the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and its project cycle process, process to access funding, and latest CARICOM Projects. The group project discussed the numerous tools, steps, and methods used within the context of managing project implementation.


Shaping Sustainable Energy Systems

The assessment for this course consisted of one (1) partnered case study presentation, one (1) partnered lab report, discussion forum questions, and one (1) coursework examination.  

Case study presentation:

A case study was assigned to our pair based on “Solar photovoltaic technology in isolated rural communities in Latin America and the Caribbean”.  The presentation gave a summary of the information in its Introduction, presented current models such as the dealer, concessionary, and community-led models in its Literature Review, discussed the project outlined in the case study’s implementation methods, results, and conclusion, and it critiqued the study and considered its applicability to Trinidad and Tobago.

Lab report:

The EnergyPLAN software was employed to develop a current Reference Model for Trinidad and Tobago and construct Renewable Energy System (RES) Models for offshore wind and solar PV energy for 2030 based on five scenarios. Critical Excess Electricity Production, Total Cost, Fuel Cost and Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions were considered to assess the Reference Model to the RES Model. It was concluded that 800 MW was the optimal input for the system into T&T’s existing energy portfolio. The best-case scenario was found to be 30% Renewable Energy and 10% Energy Efficiency which at 800 MW yielded Total Cost of 9201 TTD, Fuel Total of 58.56 TWh/yr, Total CO2 Emissions of 12.96 Mt, which were the lowest of the values, hence most feasible.


Advanced Solar Energy

The assessment for this course consisted of two (2) lab reports, one (1) research project, and three (3) coursework examinations.  

Lab 1:

The technical and financial feasibility of a solar PV power plant in Valera Venezuela was analysed using RETScreen. A model was created then manipulated for Policy Option 1 which had an electricity export rate of $0.296/kWh, Policy Option 2 which had an electricity export rate of $0.819/kWh, and various scenarios to test their viability.

The gross annual GHG emission of 16.5 tCO2 remained constant for all assumptions, policy options, litres of gasoline not consumed, and barrels of crude oil not consumed. The 95% difference between the base and proposed case led to the inference that the gross annual GHG emission of 16.5 tCO2 was equivalent to 7091 litres of gasoline not consumed and 38.4 barrels of crude oil not consumed.

For Policy Option 1, for both litres of gasoline not consumed, and barrels of crude oil not consumed, Pre-tax IRR – equity was 5.1%, Pre-tax IRR – assets were -1.4%, Simple payback was 13.4yr, equity payback was 20.4yr. For Policy Option 2, for both litres of gasoline not consumed, and barrels of crude oil not consumed, Pre-tax IRR – equity was 49%, Pre-tax IRR – assets were 14.5%, Simple payback was 4.8yr, equity payback was 2yr.

Policy Option 2 had a higher IRR on equity of 49% and lower Payback Period on equity of 2 years based on the electricity export rate of $0.819/KWh and therefore it was recommended as a more promising option and should be examined further. This project could be classified under CDM as it has CERC potential.

Lab 2:

A stand-alone solar photovoltaic (PV) system integration was set up and tested using the mobile training toolkit (MTT) and multiple scenarios for the PV array using the MTT were tested. The lab was conducted during a period of intense cloud cover with sporadic sunshine, the cardboard for the exercises involving covering the panel was not in the kit and the multimeter overheated during the experimentation process.

Exercise L1-6 had a total irradiance of 672W/m2, total diffused irradiance of 301W/m2, and total reflective irradiance of 123W/m2. The direct irradiance was calculated to be 371W/m2. Exercise L1-7 allowed for the calibration of the array. Exercise L1-8 showed that as the angle increased the short circuit current decreased. It reduced from 0.652A at 0˚ to 0.642A to 10˚.

In Exercise L1-9, a singular panel produced an open circuit voltage reading of 19.76V and a short circuit current of 0.436A. The two panels were connected in parallel and gave an open circuit voltage reading of 19.67V and a short circuit current of 0.82A which showed that the voltage remained relatively the same and the current almost doubled. The two panels were connected in series and provided an open circuit voltage reading of 39.9V and a short circuit current of 0.47A which showed that the current remained relatively the same and the voltage more than doubled.

In Exercise L-10, the solar irradiance was measured to be 246W/m2 while the array of 0.79m length, 0.36m width, and back sheet temperature of 34.8oC yielded a short circuit current of 0.475A and an open circuit voltage of 19.79V. These parameters were used to calculate the power output of the module to be 25.18W/m2 and the approximate power conversion efficiency of the module at the back sheet temperature to be 10.24%. In Exercise L-11, the voltage change from Voc1 in percentage showed a 89.40% change in current and 4.72% change in voltage at 65%, and a 90.54% change in current and 9.67% change in voltage at 30%. It was concluded that as irradiance levels decreased, current change from Isc1 in percentage notably increased and the voltage change from Voc1 in percentage decreased.

For Exercise L-12, the graph showed slight declination after the initial reading and indicated that as temperature increased, the voltage decreased slightly. The temperature coefficient was calculated to be -0.2297 V/°C. In Exercise L-13, the graph displayed slight inclination after the initial reading and indicated that as temperature increased, the current increased slightly. The temperature coefficient was calculated to be 0.0049 V/°C. In Exercise L-14, the graph exhibits declination after the initial reading and suggested that as temperature increased, the power decreased. This is due to the short circuit current’s minimal increase with voltage’s major decrease in comparison. The temperature coefficient was calculated to be -0.2544 V/°C.

For Exercise L1-19, the unshaded panel yielded a short circuit current of 1.86A and an open circuit voltage of 39.1V. The shading of one cell had little effect on the parameters with a short circuit current of 1.84A and the same open circuit voltage. Half the array being shaded resulted in significant decreases in current and voltage. The open circuit voltage decreased to 22.8V while the short circuit current decreased to 0.06A.

Research project:

The objectives and programmes of the CARICOM Energy Policy were discussed. Barbados was selected as a CARICOM country to outline its initiatives to realise its own target. A PV farm of 2 MW or more capacity (plant by Barbados Light and Power Company) was researched and discussed. The steps taken to set up the country’s first utility scale farm in St. Lucy from design to installation were also outlined. A general assessment of how effective the farm was in contributing to the energy mix of Barbados and a proposal of additional recommendations for the country to progress towards sustainable economic development were included.


Energy Storage

The assessment for this course consisted of two (2) lab reports, two (2) coursework assignments, and one (1) coursework examination.  

Lab 1:

The experiment aimed to investigate the production of green hydrogen using solar energy. The objectives of the experiment included understanding the functioning of the hydro-Genius Professional Solar Hydro-gen System, discovering the production methods for hydrogen, and exploring the feasibility of green hydrogen in the Caribbean. The hydro-genius professional has a solar panel connected to an electrolyser, which would have generated an electric current to separate distilled water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen would have been used to run double fuel cells, which would have generated electricity form hydrogen and oxygen.

Green hydrogen is the use of RE sources to power the electrolysis process used to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. It is non-polluting, easy to store, can be transformed into synthetic gas or electricity, and can be used commercially, industrially, or for transportation. Hydrogen is found in compounds such as water and methane and can be separated into pure hydrogen. It can be produced through natural gas reforming, electrolysis, renewable liquid reforming, and fermentation. Other methods of development include high temperature water splitting, photobiological water splitting, and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Governments require initiation of targets and policy measures to produce hydrogen at a large scale with a low carbon footprint to support a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a diverse source and can be converted to hydrocarbons, ammonia, methanol, synthetic fuels, and reducing agents. The Caribbean has the potential to become a self-supplied green hydrogen ecosystem by establishing a target to fulfil the region’s hydrogen demand and importing it from within the region to countries with limited production potential. T&T has the potential to be a key player in the green energy environment with 57Gw of RE and 25GW of output feeding electrolysers to produce 4Mtpa of green hydrogen by 2065.

Green hydrogen is feasible in T&T if RE plants are commissioned within the next 3 years. Construction began on the utility scale solar project at Brechin Castle on 12th April 2023 and there are recommendations for offshore wind to be the driving force for the green economy in T&T. NewGen Energy has a concept for green hydrogen feedstock to replace grey hydrogen in the Caribbean as bp and Shell are developing a 130MW solar powered electrolyser facility in Point Lisas. HDF Energy and Rubis Caribbean are pioneering a business model to address lack of access to clean, affordable energy, and scarcity of agricultural land in Barbados. Dominica has signed a Framework Agreement to establish a joint venture company for the development of a large-scale green hydrogen geothermal complex. These signal to the Caribbean community soon becoming a hub for the green economy.

Technology can be a major driver for the green hydrogen transition through digital twins, monitoring and control, advanced analytics, certificates of origin and end-to-end traceability. It is better to use RE to power electrolysis of water as it is a completely renewable process whereas using RE to power steam reformation produces CO2 emissions. Although, it is currently more expensive to produce hydrogen from electrolysis, it is the carbon neutral choice with better long-term advantages.

Lab 2:

A sand battery is a high temperature thermal energy storage (TES) which utilizes sand or comparable materials as its storage medium to store energy in it as heat. The aim is to function as a high capacity, high power reservoir for excess solar and/or wind energy. The collected heat energy can then be employed to heat buildings and provide high temperature steam and process heat to industries (Polar Night Energy 2022). Sand batteries are used in colder climates such as Scandinavian countries like Finland where it was first launched. It was created by Polar Night Energy and Vatajankoski to provide thermal energy for Vatajankoski’s district heating network.

The thermal conductivity of sand is affected by its saturation and dry density. Increases in either will result in an increase in thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity is also influenced by mineral composition, temperature, texture, and time (Hamdhan and Clarke 2010). Siliceous sand primarily contains quartz grains and is typically used for laboratory testing. However, coral sand originates from the deposit of carbonate skeletons of marine organisms. Thus, temperature, salinity,  sun exposure, and water clarity affect a sample size from the same site therefore it is not ideal for laboratory testing (Xu and Zhuge 2016). The usual type of sand found in the Caribbean is coral sand.

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the ability of sand to store thermal energy, determine the specific heat capacity of sand, and plot the cooling curves of sand. To conduct the experiment, a dry crucible with and without dry sand was weighed using a scale. A thermocouple was used to measure the initial temperature of the sand and crucible. The crucible was placed into a furnace and heated for 18 minutes and 40 seconds. The crucible was taken out of the furnace and temperature of the sand and crucible were measured. The temperature of the sand was recorded at 2-minute intervals for 10 readings. 

The calculated specific heat capacity was 133282.54 J/kg/ oC whereas the actual value is 830 J/kg/ oC. Thus, producing an error percentage of 15958%. The cooling curve did not show any phase changes due to the boiling point of sand not being achieved. This may have been due to numerous factors such as the type of sand (coral sand) differing to that used in the experimentation (silica sand) used to attain the actual value, the moisture content of the sand, the sand not being heated at high enough temperatures, the sample size used being too small, and the air conditioned laboratory affecting the cooling rate. It was determined that the sand was able to store thermal energy as the cooling curve did show moments of energy storage.


Hydro & Marine Power

The assessment for this course consisted of one (1) lab report, and two (2) coursework assignments.


The objectives of question 1 were to create a 3-D converging diverging nozzle simulation, obtain a pressure contour at the mid-section plane, and plot a graph illustrating the variation of centre line flow velocity with respect to axial direction. The simulation was based on specifications provided, with one side of symmetry created to minimize analysis time and mimic the nozzle's centre line. The static pressure contour showed a maximum pressure of 8190.667 Pa and a minimum pressure of -23116.29 Pa, with maximum pressure at the inlet and minimum pressure at the throttle. The graph depicted the variation of centre line flow velocity with respect to axial direction using line of symmetry as the assessment point instead of CFD Post. The graph increased from an initial flow rate of 2.67 m/s to a maximum flow rate of 7.98 m/s at 0.0295 m where it then decreased to a final flow rate of 4.48 m/s at 0.0501 m. The simulation faced limitations, such as the CFD Post being unable to be opened and a warning stating that convergence tolerance of 1e-06 was not reached.

The objective of question 2 was to create a 2-D computational domain simulation and obtain the water-vapor volume fraction using the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. The simulation showed a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 0.9109667, with the maximum value occurring at the off flow of the notch and pipe curve. Much of the pipe maintained a volume fraction value of 0 to indicate no bubbles. The simulation also revealed that evaporation and condensation mass transfer occurred at these areas.

Portfolio: Projects


The Wilton’s Pharmacy Drone Case Study was utilized to create a Project Life Cycle (Initiating & Planning; Scope, Time & Cost Management; Risk, Quality, Teams, & Procurement).

Background: Wilmont’s is a top-ranked US retail pharmacy with more than 8,000 stores nationwide. The company is secretly considering delivering prescriptions by flying drone. DroneTech, a small firm in San Francisco, CA announced the approach in March, and Wilmont’s has made an agreement with DroneTech to prototype this project in the San Francisco area. DroneTech will provide the drone technology as well as the drone piloting and delivery systems, but will customize its systems and business process to conform to Wilmont’s requirements.

You are the project manager assigned to lead this project.

Stakeholder Register.jpg

Initiating & Planning

At this stage, a Project Organisation Chart, Stakeholder Register and Project Charter was created.

The Stakeholder Register for the Case can be found pictured.

Scope, Time & Cost Management

At this phase, a Project Scope Statement, Work Breakdown Structure, Gannt Chart & Project CPM, Project Cost Estimate, and Earned Value Analysis was completed.

The CPM for the Project Schedule can be found pictured.

Risk Log.jpg

Risk, Quality, Teams, & Procurement

At this step, a Risk Log and Cost of Quality was done.

The Risk Log can be found pictured.

Portfolio: Projects
Portfolio: Projects


"Creativity is intelligence having fun" - Albert Einstein

I love taking my thoughts and bringing them to life - whether it be transforming a simulation to a piece of furniture or using a canvas and some paint. The ability to create is truly a gift to awaken the senses. 

desk 1.jpg

Functional Desk

A desk was simulated so that drawings featuring its dimension could be rendered. The desk was crafted from wood and placed on wheels for ease of use. The full project, its drawings and final result can be found in the blog by clicking the attached link.


"Just a Bit of Tape" Paintings

This piece was inspired by a do it yourself piece on Pinterest that did not go as planned so improvisation was needed.


Carnival Tabanca

The backpacks from Carnivals past, which were once used as decoration in my bedroom, had seen its best days. Therefore, I concocted the notion to revamp its existence by reimagining its presence in the art realm through a painting.


These are projects I pursued in my journey of expanding and improving my resource of coding languages and proficiency.

Reaction Tester _edited.jpg

Reaction Tester

This simple game tests a user's reaction time. Random shapes (either a square or a circle) of various colours appear in differing locations on the screen. Users are timed to see how long it takes them to click on the shape as it appears. The amount of time which has elapsed is displayed.

BBC Webpage Dupe

A duplicate of an old BCC webpage was created.

BBC Webpage.jpg
App Landing Page.jpg

App Landing Page

A Mock Up of an App Landing Page was created to showcase "My Awesome App" to potential users.

Portfolio: Projects

Get in Touch

Thanks for submitting!

Portfolio: Contact
bottom of page